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Depending on the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. The country is essentially arid except for the southern slopes of the Himalayas and the sub-mountainous tract where the annual rainfall varies between 760 and 1270 mm. 
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Introduction to Pakistan Wildlife Biodiversity of Pakistan Ecological Zones of Pakistan

Section 9: Climate

Depending on the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. The country is essentially arid except for the southern slopes of the Himalayas and the sub-mountainous tract where the annual rainfall varies between 760 and 1270 mm. This area has humid sub-Tropical climate. In the extreme north - because of great heights - Highland climate prevails. The controlling factors of the climate are:

1. The sub-Tropical location of Pakistan that tends to keep the temperature high, particularly in   
    summer. 
2. The oceanic influence of the Arabian Sea that keeps down the temperature contrast between 
    summer and winter at the coast.
3. Higher altitudes in the west and north that keep the temperature down throughout the year.
4. The Monsoon winds that bring rainfall in summer.
5. The Western Depression originating from the Mediterranean region and entering Pakistan from the 
    west that brings rainfall in winter. These cyclones make a long land journey and are thus robbed 
    of most of the moisture by the time they reach Pakistan. 6. A temperature inversion layer at a 
    low elevation of about 1,500 m in the south during the summer, that does not allow the 
    moisture-laden air to rise and condensation to take place.

Temperature
Pakistan can be divided into four broad temperature regions:

1. Hot summer and mild winter: 32o C or more in summer and 10 to 21o C in winter.
2. Warm summer and mild winter: 21 - 32oC in summer and 10 to 21oC in winter.
3. Warm summer and cool winter: 21 - 32oC in summer and 0 - 10oC in winter.
4. Mild summer and cool/cold winter: Summer temperature between 10 and 21oC and winter 
    temperature between 0 and 10oC.

Maps showing maximum and minimum temperature regimes 

Map Credit: UNEP Environment Assessment Programme for Asia and the Pacific (http://www.rrcap.unep.org)

Rainfall
The major part of Pakistan experiences dry climate. Humid conditions prevail but over a small area in the north. The whole of Sindh, most of Balochistan, the major part of the Punjab and central parts of Northern Areas receive less than 250 mm of rainfall in a year. Northern Sindh, southern Punjab, north-western Balochistan and the central parts of Northern Areas receive less than 125 mm of rainfall. True humid conditions appear after the rainfall increases to 750 mm in plains and 625 mm in highlands. There are two sources of rainfall in Pakistan: the Monsoon and the Western Depression. The former takes place from July to September and the latter, December to March.

Map showing precipitation regime 

Map Credit: UNEP Environment Assessment Programme for Asia and the Pacific (http://www.rrcap.unep.org)

 

 


References and Credits:

  • Pakistan," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2004
    http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  • UNEP Environment Assessment Programme for Asia and the Pacific

  • Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan © 2000 by Government of Pakistan, World Wide Fund for Nature, Pakistan and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Pakistan

  • First National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, LEAD Pakistan, Ministry of Environment and Local Government Pakistan and UNEP

  • COUNTRY REPORT BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN, Ejaz Ahmad Conservation Director, World Wide Fund For Nature - Pakistan

  • BIODIVERSTIY CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN : AN OVERVIEW, Muhammad Ajmal Director (Industries & Ozone) Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife C/O Pakistan National, Commission for UNESCO

  • Pakistan at a Glance, The World Resource Institute

 

 

©1997-2004 Wildlife of Pakistan-All Rights Reserved.