on the topography, there is an extreme variation in the
temperature of Pakistan. The country is essentially arid except
for the southern slopes of the Himalayas and the sub-mountainous
tract where the annual rainfall varies between 760 and 1270 mm.
This area has humid sub-Tropical climate. In the extreme north -
because of great heights - Highland climate prevails. The
controlling factors of the climate are:
The sub-Tropical location of Pakistan that tends to keep the
temperature high, particularly in
2. The oceanic influence of the Arabian Sea that keeps down the
temperature contrast between
summer and winter at the coast.
3. Higher altitudes in the west and north that keep the
temperature down throughout the year.
4. The Monsoon winds that bring rainfall in summer.
5. The Western Depression originating from the Mediterranean
region and entering Pakistan from the
west that brings rainfall in winter. These
cyclones make a long land journey and are thus robbed
of most of the moisture by the time they
reach Pakistan. 6. A temperature inversion layer at a
low elevation of about 1,500 m in the south
during the summer, that does not allow the
moisture-laden air to rise and condensation
to take place.
can be divided into four broad temperature regions:
1. Hot summer and mild winter: 32o C or more in summer and 10 to
21o C in winter.
2. Warm summer and mild winter: 21 - 32oC in summer and 10 to
21oC in winter.
3. Warm summer and cool winter: 21 - 32oC in summer and 0 - 10oC
4. Mild summer and cool/cold winter: Summer temperature between
10 and 21oC and winter
temperature between 0 and 10oC.
showing maximum and minimum temperature regimes
Credit: UNEP Environment Assessment Programme for
Asia and the Pacific (http://www.rrcap.unep.org)
major part of Pakistan experiences dry climate. Humid conditions
prevail but over a small area in the north. The whole of Sindh,
most of Balochistan, the major part of the Punjab and central
parts of Northern Areas receive less than 250 mm of rainfall in
a year. Northern Sindh, southern Punjab, north-western
Balochistan and the central parts of Northern Areas receive less
than 125 mm of rainfall. True humid conditions appear after the
rainfall increases to 750 mm in plains and 625 mm in highlands.
There are two sources of rainfall in Pakistan: the Monsoon
and the Western Depression. The former takes place from
July to September and the latter, December to March.
Credit: UNEP Environment Assessment Programme for Asia
and the Pacific (http://www.rrcap.unep.org)
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2004
http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment Assessment Programme for Asia and the Pacific
Action Plan for Pakistan © 2000 by Government of Pakistan,
World Wide Fund for Nature, Pakistan and International Union
for Conservation of Nature and
National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on
Biological Diversity, LEAD Pakistan, Ministry of Environment
and Local Government Pakistan and UNEP
REPORT BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN, Ejaz Ahmad
Conservation Director, World Wide Fund For Nature - Pakistan
CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN : AN OVERVIEW, Muhammad Ajmal
Director (Industries & Ozone) Ministry of Environment,
Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife C/O Pakistan National,
Commission for UNESCO
at a Glance, The World Resource Institute
Wildlife of Pakistan-All Rights Reserved.