hot, dry desert. Temperate in the
northwest; arctic in the north.
Indus plain in the east. Mountains in
the north and northwest. Balochistan
plateau in the west
pollution from raw sewage, industrial
wastes, and agricultural runoff. Limited
natural fresh water resources. A majority of the population does not have
access to potable water. Deforestation,
soil erosion, and
Pakistan, officially Islamic Republic of Pakistan, republic in South Asia, marking the area where South Asia converges with Southwest Asia and Central Asia. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad; Karachi is the country’s largest city.
The area of present-day Pakistan was the cradle of the earliest known civilization of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilization (2500?-1700 bc). The territory was part of the Mughal Empire from 1526 until the 1700s, when it came under British rule. Pakistan gained independence in August 1947. It initially comprised two parts, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which were separated by about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of territory within India.
West Pakistan consisted of the provinces of Sind, Baluchistan,
muslim Punjab, North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P), including
all the princely states lying within the boundaries of West
Pakistan. In December 1971 East Pakistan seceded and became the independent republic of
Bangladesh. The present state of Pakistan is proving itself an
independent and economically viable unit. Its economy has been
changing from predominantly agricultural to a diversifies
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