Pakistan has given
serious thought to promote and conserve its biological resources
by taking important steps in the Establishment of Protected Areas
and signing International Conventions and Agreements.
Section 4: Initiatives to Promote and Conserve Biological Diversity
has given serious thought to promote and conserve its biological
resources by taking important steps in the following areas:
Protected Areas (P.As)
In order to conserve as many species and
ecosystems as possible, the government has established 190
protected areas (P.As) so far. These include 15 national parks,
83 wildlife sanctuaries, 85 game reserves and 14 unclassified
areas. The extent of land under protection in Pakistan comprises
9% of the country area, i.e., 71649 square kilometers. Nine
wetlands have been designated under the Ramsar Convention.
The first step towards legislation to protect
biodiversity was introduced in 1968 with establishment of the
Wildlife Enquiry Committee (WEC). This Committee drafted
conservation legislation which was later adopted through various
provincial acts and ordinances. These statutes provide for the
creation and management of Various categories of P.As; national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries; game reserves; and private game
reserves. A national Council for Conservation of Wildlife (NCCW)
was established in 1974 within the Ministry of Food, Agriculture
and Livestock. The NCCW has an advisory board and is responsible
for coordinating, formulation and implementing wildlife policies
at the federal and provincial levels, coordinating activities
with international agencies and promoting conservation
generally. The first piece of legislation to consider
environment as a whole was the Environmental Protection
Ordinance 1983. The National Conservation Strategy (NCS) marked
a further shift away from simple regulation and protection
measures towards a holistic view of environmental problems.
Conventions and Agreements
Pakistan is a signatory of virtually all the major international
agreements in this field: the Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES), the
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar), the
World Heritage Convention, and the Convention of the
Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals(Bonn).
Pakistani is a member of the World Conservation union (IUCN) and
the International Waterfowl and Wetland Research Bureau (IWRB).
In addition, Pakistan also signed convention on Biological
Diversity (Rio de Janeiro). Today 125 countries are parties to
this convention. iv. National Conservation Strategy (NCS): The
Ministry of Environment, Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife,
Islamabad which is the apex body in Pakistan responsible for
environment related issues has formulated a ®National
Conservation Strategy¯ which encompasses Biodiversity along with
other thirteen core programme areas. This strategy provides
backward and forward linkages among various core areas.
NCS recognizes that the existing protected areas (P.As) system
is incomplete, in that it is not representative of all the
ecosystems and plants and animal communities; the boundaries of
existing P.As are in most cases not drawn according to
ecological criteria; many are too small and isolated; and there
are limited management planning capabiliities and weak law
enforcement programmes. There are no plans which identify
species ®hot spots¯, or the specific management requirements of
rare and endangered species. The lack of any significant
financial benefits and incentives to local people to participate
also constrains biodiversity conservation in the country. As a
result of these conditions, much of Pakistan¯s biodiversity is
severely threatened, and in critical need of attention. To
conserve biodiversity, the NCS recommends investing Rs. 1.08
billion in the following seven programmes.
management of national parks and protected areas;
- development of new national parks;
- development of new wetland reserves;
- a medical botanicals and germplasm preservation programme;
- community management of game reserves;
- programmes for endangered species; and
- captive breeding in the private sector.
First National Report on the Implementation of the Convention
on Biological Diversity, LEAD Pakistan, Ministry of
Environment and Local Government Pakistan and UNEP.
COUNTRY REPORT BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN, Ejaz
Ahmad Conservation Director, World Wide Fund For Nature -
BIODIVERSTIY CONSERVATION IN PAKISTAN : AN OVERVIEW, Muhammad
Ajmal Director (Industries & Ozone) Ministry of Environment,
Urban Affairs, Forestry and Wildlife C/O Pakistan National,
Commission for UNESCO.
Ali, S.I. 1978. The Flora of Pakistan: some general analytical
Notes, Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh, 36:427-439.
EUAD & IUCN. 1992. The Pakistan National Conservation
EUAD & IUCN, Pakistan.
Groombridge, B. 1988. Balochistan Province, Pakistan: a
Environmental Profile. IUCN & WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland,
Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Khalid, Z.M. 1996. Biotechnological Solution to Coloured
Textile Industry. Natura, 22(2) : 6-7.
NCCW, 1978. Wildlife Conservation Strategy: Pakistan. National
for Conservation of Wildlife, Islamabad, Pakistan. Unpublished
Report, 73 pp.
Reid, W.V. 1992. "How Many Species Will There Be?" In: T.
and J. Sayer, (eds.), Tropical deforestation and species
extinction. Chapman and
Roberts, T. J. 1977. The Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn,
Roberts, T. J. 1986. Critical Ecosystems in Pakistan. Report
Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. Unpublished 10 pp.
Roberts, T. J. 1991. The Birds of Pakistan. Vol. 1. Oxford
Sadeque, N. 1986. Plants. In: M. Carwardine (ed.), The Nature
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Stewart, R.R. 1982. An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular
West Pakistan and Kashmir. Pakistan Agriculture Research
WCMC. 1991. Biodiversity Guide to Pakistan. IUCN & WCMC,
Biodiversity Table: NCOS Sector Paper on Natural Capital by
abdul Latif Rao & Abeedullah Jan.
Wildlife of Pakistan-All Rights Reserved.